As the world's biggest vessels push beyond 16,000 TEU, these mega-ships bring new demands for efficient operation and higher productivity. The challenge for container terminals is to handle fewer but very large calls - and shipping lines will not accept longer times at berths.
Automation is making major strides all over the world with more and more container terminals adopting automated solutions to meet the challenge.
Automation increases speed and reduces handling errors. But efficiency is not the only demand being met. Safety, security and energy use are also being addressed.
Three primary trends can be seen at the moment: